Basic fire protection and prevention system for fire safety


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What is important from the point of view of fire safety is how one interprets these properties. Thorough knowledge is essential to understand such properties, and their practical implications.

In view of the large number of flammable/explosive chemicals being handled and used by a wide spectrum of industries, this knowledge is a basic safety requirement today.

A FIRE is voluntarily advancing process:
combustion of one or more inflammable materials & releasing energy
Fire is a chemical reaction between oxygen and carbon (or even hydrogen and carbon) in which heat and light energies are also released.
combination which may be defined as a chemical reaction of rapid oxidation accompanied with evolution of light & heat.

How to Extinguish a FIRE
There are three fire extinguishing methods :

by removing fuel from fire.
By cutting of fuel supply
Most effective for gas fire

blanketing of fuel by coating material,
by inserting of gas, steam/vaporizing liquid

natural cooling ( water spray is the most commonly used) effective for oxidizing chemicals, tank fires, etc.

Breaking chain reaction - fourth method

Classification of FIRE
Class A Fires

Fires in ordinary combustible materials, such as wood, cloth, paper, rubber, and many plastics.

Class B Fires
Fires in flammable liquids, combustible liquids, petroleum greases, oils, oil-based paints, solvents, and flammable gases.

Class C Fires
Fires that involve GAS & energized electrical equipment where the electrical non conductivity of the extinguishing media is of importance. (When electrical equipment is de-energized, fire extinguishers for Class A or Class B fires can be used safely.)

Class D Fires
Fires in combustible metals, such as magnesium, titanium, sodium, and potassium.

Types of Fire Extinguisher:
DCP Extinguisher

DCP Extinguisher is of 5 kg & 10 kg capacity gas cartridge type, and of 25 & 50 kg capacity trolley mounted type.
This type of Extinguisher is suitable for Class B,C& D
DCP Extinguisher contains sodium bi carbonate as extinguisher media. (white colour)
Duration time is around 1 min.

C02 Extinguisher
CO2 Extinguisher is of 2.0 kg, 4.5 kg & 9 kg capacity and of 22.5 kg capacity trolley mounted type.
This type of Extinguisher is suitable for Class B & C
CO2 Extinguisher contains Carbon Di-oxide as extinguisher media.
Duration time is around 25 to 60 sec.

ABC Extinguisher
Generally available in 5Kg
This type of Extinguisher is suitable for Class A, B & C
Nitrogen Gas is filled at 15 kg/cm2 pressure on Light Yellow DCP.
Duration time is around 45 to 60 sec.

Mechanical Foam Type
Generally available in 9 lit & 50 lit
This type of Extinguisher is suitable for Class B. Synthetic Foam is filled in it.
CO2 Gas Cartridge is fitted for operation.

How to use Fire Extinguisher
Pull the pin

This will allow you to squeeze the handle in order to discharge the extinguisher.

Aim at the base of the fire
Aiming at the middle will do no good. The agent will pass through the flames.

Squeeze the handle
This will release the pressurized extinguishing agent.

Sweep side to side
Cover the entire area that is on fire. Continue until fire is extinguished. Keep an eye on the area for re-lighting.

Flash point is the minimum temperature at which sufficient vapor given a momentary flash in presence of air.

It the lowest temperature at which material begins to burn with out heat in presence of air.

Fire Hazards at industrial Plant
FO Storage Tank
Melting Furnace & Molten Metal
Welding Operation
Gas Cutting Operation
Diesel Drums
Oil Spillage
LPG Cylinder

Fire protection & prevention extinguishers minimum requirement;
Water / CO2 Type – (9 lit) : 02
Mechanical Foam Type (9 lit) : 04
Mechanical Foam Type(50 lit) : 03
CO2 Type (2 Kg) : 06
CO2 Type (4.5 Kg) : 27
DCP Type (5 Kg) : 73
DCP Type (10 Kg) : 04
ABC Type (5 Kg) : 04

Precaution at the time of Fire Fighting
  • Extinguishing agent eliminates one of the vital elements of the fire
  • Many types of extinguishers available
  • Know location of extinguishers
  • Alarm has been sounded
  • Building has been evacuated
  • Fire is small and confined
  • You can fight the fire with your back toward an escape route
  • The extinguisher matches the fire type
  • The extinguisher works effectively
  • You are properly trained in the use of the extinguisher
  • You are confident you can put the fire out
Personal hazards
Smoke and noxious fumes
Smoke and fumes cause unconsciousness
Death may result
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